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王牧华-2019-留学生品牌课-教育政策 (课程简介、教学进度、教学大纲、授课教案)
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王牧华-2019-留学生品牌课-教育政策 课程简介

王牧华-2019-留学生品牌课-教育政策 教学进度

王牧华-2019-留学生品牌课-教育政策 教学大纲

王牧华-2019-留学生品牌课-教育政策 授课教案

 

1.课程简介

 

 

Introduction of Educational Policy Course

 

Course NameEducational Policy    Credit: 3    Study Hours: 54

 

General description of this course, including its students’ level, and the previous course students have studied, or which basic knowledge and skills they should have. Then, it should contain the goal and the main content of this course. This description is usually 300 words.

 

This course is designed to introduce students to educational policy debates. The class is strongly recommended for students in the Education Management master’s program, but we also very much welcome the perspectives of students from other master programs.

We will start with a brief overview of the policy development cycle, Garbage Can Model and the Window of opportunity for policy change. We then will introduce a framework for policy analysis, which will be used for case analysis for the following chapters. We then turn to the policy paradoxes as proposed by Stone, concerning issues about the goals, problems and solutions in policy making and implementation challenges. We will examine a number of recent policy reform efforts in China and selected OECD countries, with particular attention to English as a medium of instruction, and PISA country ranking. We will examine examples of good practice from other countries and from other fields as a way to stimulate creative thinking about reform. Finally, we will consider questions of politics, with an eye towards how to move ideas into action. The course also includes both seminal texts on educational policy and politics as well as the most current thinking on these questions.

As much as possible, the course will be interactive and student-directed; each class will feature considerable time for discussion, and project topics will be chosen by students to match their interests. By the end of the class, students will have learned critical “policy skills” (such as writing policy analyses), and the ability to communicate clearly, persuasively, and logically about an educational policy issue, and preferably in English. Equally importantly, they will also have reached informed conclusions about what they think a better education system might look like and what the leverage points are for achieving those ends.

2.教学进度设计

 

Teaching Schedule of Educational Policy Course

Study Hours:   54             Weekly Study Hours:   3      Weeks:  18

Week

Teaching Content

Notes

1

Introduction


2

The policy development cycle


3

The Garbage Can Model


4

Window of Opportunity for Policy Change


5

A framework for policy analysis


6

Policy Paradox Part Politics

   1. The market and the polis


7

Part Goals 2. Equity

Group 1

8

3.Efficiency

Group 2

9

4. Security 5. Liberty

Group 3

10

Summary goals

Round table/panel discussion 1

All groups

11

Part  Problems 6.Symbols

Group 4

12

7. Numbers 8.Causes

Group 5

13

9.Interests10.Decisions

Group 6

14

Part  Solutions  11. Inducements

Group 7

15

12.Rules 13.Facts

Group 8

16

14.Rights 15.Powers


17

Summary problems and solutions

Round table/panel discussion 2

All groups

18

Policy paradox in action/Conclusions



3.教学大纲

 

Syllabus of Educational Policy course 

 

Instructors:

Professor dr. Muhua WANG

dr. Yanjuan HU

dr. Wanjuan ZHONG

dr. Xiantong ZHAO

 

Faculty of Education, Southwest University

 

Office hours in TJB Building #225

by appointment huy@swu.edu.cn

 

 

I. Basic Information

Course Name: Educational Policy

Course Type: Optional Course

Semester: 3

Credit: 3

Course Requirements:

Students should have a sufficient command of the English language to not only follow passively, but to participate actively in the discussions. It is strongly recommended for students who are interested in educational policy analysis.

Course Description:

To introduce the key concerns in current educational policy debates, the course will start with a brief overview of the policy development cycle, Garbage Can Model and the Window of opportunity for policy change, and a framework for policy analysis. We then turn to the policy paradoxes as proposed by Stone, concerning issues about the goals, problems and solutions in policy making and implementation challenges. We will examine a number of recent policy reform efforts in selected OECD countries, with particular attention to English as a medium of instruction, and the influence of PISA country ranking. We will examine examples of good practice from other countries and from other fields as a way to stimulate creative thinking about reform.

 

Textbook: Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

More study resources:

1. Xu, X. & Mei, W. (2018). Educational Policies and Legislation in China. Springer.

2. Wang, Y. (2013). Education Policy Reform Trends in G20 Members. Springer.

3. Thissen, W.A.H. & Walker, W.E. (2012). Public Policy Analysis-New Developments. Springer.

4. UNESCO handbook on education policy analysis and programming vol1

 

II. Goals

By the end of the class, students will have an overview of the policy development cycle. They will be able to recognize policy paradoxes concerning issues about the goals, problems and solutions in policy making and implementation. They will have learned critical “policy skills” (such as writing policy analyses), and the ability to communicate clearly, persuasively, and logically about an educational policy issue in English. They will also have improved their intercultural competence such as cultural perspective taking, mutual respect and avoidance of biased understandings of cultural differences.

 

III. Outline

1. Week One (YY/MM/DD)

Topic: introduction to the course

ü Point one: clarification on teaching and learning method

ü Point two: introducing the course instructors and the topics

ü Students background such as motivation for the course

ü Course assessment and student assignments

ü Course main content and time plan

Reading reference: ….

OECD- EDUCATION POLICY OUTLOOK_ 2015_Highlights

Student assignment:

1. Start brainstorming about the possible topic for your individual course paper. Think about which topic seems most interesting to you? Do some initial searching and reading about this topic as a preparation for your final research project.

2. Form study groups of 4 and start preparing for your group assignment and presentation.

 

2. Week Two

Topic: Introducing the policy development cycle

ü Defining educational policy

ü Key elements in the cycle

ü The policy development process

Reading reference: ….

1. Part I Key concepts in education policy analysis in UNESCO handbook on education policy analysis and programming vol1

2. Chapter 2 perceptions of policy in Tiffany, J. (2013).Understanding Education Policy.

Student assignment: choose a policy topic of your interest, identify the key elements involved in this policy, and draw a map describing the policy development process.

 

 

3. Week Three

Topic: Garbage Can Model

ü What is a Garbage Can Model?

ü Organized anarchy: problematic preferences, unclear technology, and fluid participation

ü The four streams: problems, solutions, participants, opportunities

Reading reference:

Cohen, M., March, J., & Olsen, J. (1972). A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1), 1-25. doi:10.2307/2392088

 

Student assignment:

Reexamine your policy development map and see how it may be expanded or amended after learning about the garbage can model

 

4. Week Four

Topic: Window of Opportunity for Policy Change

ü Policy change as a dynamic process

ü Agenda setting, coalition building and policy learning

ü SMART recommendation

ü The window of opportunity by examining evidence of changes

Reading reference: ….

1. Kingdon, J. W., (1984). Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies (Boston: Little, Brown and Company).

2. Béland, D.& Howlett, M. (2016). The role and impact of the multiple-streams approach in comparative policy analysis. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice 18(3): 221–227. 

 

Student assignment:

Reconsider your policy development map, try to identify the window of opportunity for policy change in your map.

 

5. Week Five

Topic: A framework for policy analysis

ü Purpose of the analysis: Analysis for policy and analysis of policy

ü A framework: context, text and consequences

ü Social-political environment, strategic direction, organizational principles and operational practices and procedures

Reading reference:

1. Bell, L., & Stevenson, H. (2006). Education policy: Process, themes and impact. Routledge: London. 

a. Chapter 1 what is education policy? (pp.7-24)

b. Chapter 6 Policy, strategy and leadership (pp. 97-119)

2. Taylor, S., Rizvi, F., Lingard, B. and Henry, M. 1997. Education policy and the politics of change, London: Routledge.

 

Student assignment:

Compare the different definitions of policy and analyzing framework introduced in the last three weeks, identify the similarities and differences between them, and choose or develop your own framework for policy analysis

 

 

6. Week Six

Topic: Introduction of the policy paradox

ü Model of reasoning: rational decision making vs. political reasoning

ü The Market and the Polis

Reading reference:

Chapter 1. The market and the polis in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Student assignment:  compare the analytical model from policy paradox and the framework for policy analysis from week 5, which one do you prefer to use for your policy analysis assignment? Do you see a way to combine these together and develop your own framework for analysis?

 

 

7. Week Seven

Topic: policy goals

ü Defining policy goals in general

ü Group 1 presentation: introducing equity

ü The paradox about equity: example of EMI in the class

ü Distribution: recipients, items and process

ü Dimensions of equality

Reading reference: ….

Chapter 2. Equity in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Study material: English as a medium of instruction-2015

 

Student assignment: identify the equity issues in relation to the policy issue you have chosen.

8. Week Eight

Topic: Efficiency

ü Group 2 presentation: introducing efficiency

ü The paradox about defining efficiency micro level: the case of an efficient library

ü The paradox about defining efficiency macro level: the case of the national college entrance examination

ü Voluntary exchanges and allocative efficiency

ü The equality-efficiency trade off

Reading reference: ….

Chapter 3. Efficiency in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Student assignment: identify the efficiency issues in relation to the policy issue you have chosen, do you see any equality-efficiency trade-offs?

 

9. Week Nine

Topic: 4. Security 5. Liberty

ü Comparison of the efficient systems from student assignment

ü Group 3 presentation: introducing security

ü Types of needs: Relative vs. absolute human needs; Direct vs. instrumental needs; Future vs. present needs; Physical survival vs. relational needs

ü Types of harm in relation to liberty: physical harm, material harm, emotional and moral harm; structural and accumulative harms to a community

Reading reference: ….

Chapter 4. Security in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 5. Liberty in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Student assignment: identify the security and liberty issues in relation to the policy issue you have chosen, do you see any trade-offs between different goals? How do you propose to keep balance between them?

 

 

10. Week Ten

Topic: summary goals and trade-off between different goals

ü Overview complications in defining policy goals

ü trade-off: Equity, efficiency, Liberty, security

ü Case analysis: policy paradoxes, lessons from Finish education

ü Round table discussion panel 1 of all groups on the initial planning of the group project on developing a framework and defining goals on a policy issue of their choice.

Reading reference: ….

 

Student assignment:

 

11. Week Eleven

Topic: Part  Problems 6.Symbols

ü Introducing ways to define policy problems

ü Group 4 presentation: introducing symbols

ü Types of symbols: stories, synecdoche, metaphor

Reading reference: ….

Chapter 6. Symbols in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Student assignment: in consideration of the various ways to represent a policy problem, how were symbols used as a way to present the policy problem in relation to the policy issue you have chosen? Were they effective? Why or why not?

 

12. Week Twelve

Topic: 7. Numbers 8.Causes

ü Group 5 presentation: introducing numbers

ü Why counting is political

ü Numerical strategies in problem definition

ü Causal strategies and uses of causal argument in problem definition

ü Case study: PISA country ranking

ü Case study: journal rankings and citation counts

Reading reference: ….

1. Chapter 7. Numbers in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

2. Chapter 8. Causes in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

3. PISA-2015-results-in-focus

4. Rutkowski & Rutkowski.(2014).Leaning Tower of PISA

5. Gruber, T. (2014). Academic sell-out: how an obsession with metrics and rankings is damaging academia. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 24(2), 165-177.

6. Bornmann, L., & Marx, W. (2015). Methods for the generation of normalized citation impact scores in bibliometrics: Which method best reflects the judgements of experts?. Journal of Informetrics, 9(2), 408-418.

 

Student assignment: find a university of your interest. Make a list of the reasons why you are interested in this university. Then find answers to the questions such as How was it ranked in different university ranking systems by different organizations? What is included excluded the rankings? If you would revisit your list of reasons, will it remain the same? And why or why not?

Task 2: how were numbers used to represent the policy problem of your choice?

 

 

13. Week Thirteen

Topic: 9.Interests 10.Decisions

ü Group 6 presentation: introducing interests

ü Concepts of interests: subjective vs. objective

ü Representation of interests in defining policy problems

ü Decision analysis: rational analytic model vs. polis model

Reading reference: ….

Chapter 9. Interests in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 10. Decisions in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Student assignment: how are interests represented in the policy problem you defined?

 

 

14. Week Fourteen

Topic: Part  Solutions  11. Inducements

ü Overview types of policy instrument

ü Group 7 presentation: introducing inducements

ü Positive versus negative Inducements

ü The inducement system: giver, receiver, the inducement

ü Inducements in the market and polis model

 

Reading reference: ….

Chapter 11. Inducements in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Student assignment: Were there any inducements involved in solving the policy problem you have chosen? Were they effective or not? Why?

 

 

15. Week Fifteen

Topic: 12.Rules 13.Facts

ü Concepts of good rules, tension in making rules

ü Group 8 presentation: introducing facts

ü Two faces of persuasion

ü The rational ideal vs. indoctrination

Reading reference: ….

Chapter 12. Rules in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 13. Facts in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Student assignment: Can you identify any use of rules or facts in the current policy instrument used for solving the policy problem of your choice?

 

 

16. Week Sixteen

Topic: 14.Rights 15.Powers

ü Positive rights vs. normative rights

ü Types of rights: procedural, substantive

ü Functions, sources, mechanisms of rights

ü Power: redefining membership, changing size, changing distribution of power

ü Summary of policy solutions/instruments

Reading reference: ….

Chapter 14. Rights in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 15. Powers in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Student assignment: Can you identify any use of rights or powers in the current policy instrument used for solving the policy problem of your choice?

Task 2: putting pieces together (week 11-16) and make a coherent short analytical essay about the problem definition and its solutions on the policy issue of your choice.

 

17. Week Seventeen

Topic: Policy paradox in action

ü Overview policy problems and solutions

ü Case study:

ü All group round table discussion panel 2, identify problems and proposing solutions to a policy issue of their choice

Reading reference: ….

The conclusion chapter in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Student assignment: finalize the group research paper

 

 

18. Week Eighteen

Topic: Conclusions

ü Review main points from policy development cycle, window of opportunity, framework for analysis

ü Review main points policy paradox about the goals, problems and solutions

ü Remaining questions

Reading reference:

 

Student assignment: finalize the individual research plan/policy analysis paper.

 

 

 

IV. Assessment

1. Ways of Assessment:

    Participation in discussion, small group assignments, individual research report

2. The final Score:

30% Active participation in discussion

30% group assignments

40% individual policy analysis or research proposal

3. Assessment of Whole Semester’s Performance:

 (1) Classroom Performance (20 scores): active participation in discussions. This includes individual contributions and group discussions in clarifying, questioning, or expanding on the ideas of others. Students will be asked to organize and guide discussions to question, clarify, connect, and relate class readings.

 (2) Assignments (20 scores): students work in group of 3 to 4, each group should hand in one group research paper (no less than 2000 words) on a relevant topic of their own choice. Each group shall give a presentation about their initial results in week 10 and the final results in week 17 in forms of panel/round table discussions.

(3) Exams (0 scores): no exam

(4) Research Report (40 scores): each student should write a research proposal/policy analysis/literature review in about 3000 words on a topic of their own interest. The policy analysis should have a clear theoretical framework and connected to (select) concepts covered in the Paradox book. The proposed research questions and research methods should be clearly described and justified against relevant literature.

(5) Teaching Practice (10 scores): students work in group of 3 to 4, each group shall make one presentation for at least 30 minutes on one of the topics covered in this course. This presentation should be designed and delivered to introduce the topic.

(6) Attendance (10 scores): Students should attend the courses in time, and failure to show up could also have a negative impact on the overall classroom performance.

 

4. The Final Exam:

Students independently work on policy analysis paper or research proposal. Students are advised to start early on, and work out the paper though out the course. The final deadline will be on XX, one week after the last class meeting.

 

V. Other Explanations:

All assignments must be completed on time (if late highest grade=B) and be your original work with proper citation given to readings and any other sources. Plagiarism will not be tolerated.

The course will mainly take place in forms of seminar discussions and debates about the current thinking on issues related to educational policy development. Learning outcomes thus depend strongly on what students bring into the discussions. For each 3 hour class meeting, students shall expect to spend at least 3 hours self-studying materials before that meeting. This means that you need to be prepared with the following when you come to the class meeting each week:

1. Getting the Basics Down (You DON’T need to know every single idea in every single

Chapter/article!):

a. What is the argument of the piece? (1 sentence)

b. What evidence/method did the piece use to support the argument? (List)

c. Who is (are) the author(s) responding to? (2-4 sentences)

i. Are they building on an existing argument?

ii. Are they challenging an existing argument?

iii. Are they elaborating/refining an argument?

iv. Are they incorporating other disciplinary ideas (outside of more typical education frameworks)?

d. How does the piece contribute to the field’s understanding of the issues? (1-3 sentences)

e. How effective is the argument and evidence in your opinion? (3-5 sentences)

i. What assumptions does (do) the author(s) make?

ii. What’s missing from the analysis?

iii. Do you know of existing counter evidence?

iv. Is the study generalizable?

v. Do you think there is a “real world” application for the ideas in the piece?

2. Connection to the Class meeting:

Step back and ask: What does this reading contribute to the session topic identified on the syllabus? How do the readings for the week agree/disagree? What’s the root of the disagreement?

3. Connection to the Course:

Step back again and ask: How does the reading address the big ideas of the course?

How does the reading contribute to our understanding of the politics and education?

4. Connection beyond the Course:

If you were to take up this topic, what else would you want to know? What questions still linger for you? (2-3 questions – aim for big idea questions, not fact specific questions)

4.授课教案

 

Educational Policy Course Lesson Plan

 

 

Lesson One

I. Topic introduction to the course

(Week:  1  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be prepared for the teaching and learning methods in this course

Students should be clear about the course content, time planning and assignments

Students should develop a personal goal for learning this course

 

III. Teaching Content

Clarification on teaching and learning method

Introducing the course instructors and the topics

Students background such as motivation for the course

Course assessment and student assignments

Course main content and time plan

Key points: Clarification on teaching and learning method and student assignments

Difficulties: student motivation for the course

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, role play

 

V. Reading Materials

OECD- EDUCATION POLICY OUTLOOK_ 2015_Highlights

 

VI. Student Assignment

1. Start brainstorming about the possible topic for your individual course paper. Think about which topic seems most interesting to you? Do some initial searching and reading about this topic as a preparation for your final research project.

2. Form study groups of 4 and start preparing for your group assignment and presentation.

 

Lesson Two

I. Topic Introducing the policy development cycle

(Week:  2  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to define educational policy

Students should be able to describe the key elements involved in a policy

Students should be able to explain different phases in the policy development process

III. Teaching Content

Defining educational policy

Key elements in the cycle

The policy development process

Key points: The policy development process

Difficulties: Defining educational policy

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, concept map

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading:

1. Part I Key concepts in education policy analysis in UNESCO handbook on education policy analysis and programming vol1

2. Chapter 2 perceptions of policy in Tiffany, J. (2013).Understanding Education Policy.

 

VI. Student Assignment

Choose a policy topic of your interest, identify the key elements involved in this policy, and draw a map describing the policy development process.

 

Lesson Three

I. Topic Garbage Can Model

(Week:  3  ; Study hours: 3   )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to explain when a garbage can model can be used.

Students should know the four streams

Students should be able to explain the relationships between four streams

 

III. Teaching Content

What is the Garbage Can Model?

Organized anarchy: problematic preferences, unclear technology, and fluid participation

The four streams: problems, solutions, participants, opportunities

Key points: The four streams: problems, solutions, participants, opportunities

Difficulties: The four streams: problems, solutions, participants, opportunities

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, case analysis

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Cohen, M., March, J., & Olsen, J. (1972). A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1), 1-25. doi:10.2307/2392088

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

Reexamine your policy development map and see how it may be expanded or amended after learning about the garbage can model

 

Lesson Four

I. Topic Window of Opportunity for Policy Change

(Week:  4  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to understand the dynamic process of policy change

Students should be able to understand how the window of opportunity could be created

Students should be able to recognize the window of opportunity by examining evidence of changes

III. Teaching Content

 Policy change as a dynamic process

Agenda setting, coalition building and policy learning

SMART recommendation

The window of opportunity by examining evidence of changes

Key points: The window of opportunity by examining evidence of changes

Difficulties: The window of opportunity by examining evidence of changes

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group

 

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Kingdon, J. W., (1984). Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies (Boston: Little, Brown and Company).

Other readings: Béland, D.& Howlett, M. (2016). The role and impact of the multiple-streams approach in comparative policy analysis. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice 18(3): 221–227. 

 

VI. Student Assignment

Reconsider your policy development map, try to identify the window of opportunity for policy change in your map.

 

Lesson Five

I. Topic A framework for policy analysis

(Week:  5  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to recognize the purpose of a specific policy analysis

Students should know the key components in an analysis framework

Students should be able to develop a framework for policy analysis

 

III. Teaching Content

 Purpose of the analysis: Analysis for policy and analysis of policy

A framework: context, text and consequences

Social-political environment, strategic direction, organizational principles and operational practices and procedures

Key points: develop a framework for policy analysis

Difficulties: develop a framework for policy analysis

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, case study

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading:

Chapter 1 what is education policy? (pp.7-24)

Chapter 6 Policy, strategy and leadership (pp. 97-119)

Bell, L., & Stevenson, H. (2006). Education policy: Process, themes and impact. Routledge: London. Other readings: Taylor, S., Rizvi, F., Lingard, B. and Henry, M. 1997. Education policy and the politics of change, London: Routledge.

VI. Student Assignment

Compare the different definitions of policy and analyzing framework introduced in the last three weeks, identify the similarities and differences between them, and choose or develop your own framework for policy analysis

 

 

 

Lesson Six

I. Topic Introduction of the policy paradox

(Week:  6  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should have an awareness of the paradoxical situations in education

Students should understand the two models of reasoning

Students should be able to explain the differences between the Market and the Polis

 

III. Teaching Content

Model of reasoning: rational decision making vs. political reasoning

The Market and the Polis

Key points: Model of reasoning

Difficulties: The Market and the Polis

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, role play

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 1. The market and the polis in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

Compare the analytical model from policy paradox and the framework for policy analysis from week 5, which one do you prefer to use for your policy analysis assignment? Do you see a way to combine these together and develop your own framework for analysis?

 

Lesson Seven

I. Topic policy goals

(Week: 7   ; Study hours: 3   )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to understand the paradoxical definition of policy goals

Students should know the distribution and dimensions of equality

Students should be able to know how equity can be defined differently given a specific example

 

III. Teaching Content

Defining policy goals in general

Group 1 presentation: introducing equity

The paradox about equity: example of EMI in the class

Distribution: recipients, items and process

Dimensions of equality

Key points: distribution and dimensions of equity

Difficulties: recognize different definitions of equity in specific contexts

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 2. Equity in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Other readings: English as a medium of instruction-2015

 

VI. Student Assignment

Identify the equity issues in relation to the policy issue you have chosen.

 

Lesson Eight

I. Topic Efficiency

(Week:  8  ; Study hours: 3   )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to understand the multiple definitions of efficiency

Students should be able to understand the concepts of voluntary exchanges and allocative efficiency

Students should develop their own idea of an efficient way of a chosen topic and offer persuasive argument

 

III. Teaching Content

 Group 2 presentation: introducing efficiency

The paradox about defining efficiency micro level: the case of an efficient library

The paradox about defining efficiency macro level: the case of the national college entrance examination

Voluntary exchanges and allocative efficiency

The equality-efficiency trade off

Key points: The paradoxical definition of efficiency

Difficulties: The tradeoff of equality and efficiency

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation, debate

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 3. Efficiency in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

1. Identify the efficiency issues in relation to the policy issue you have chosen, do you see any equality-efficiency trade-offs?

2. Find a country of your interest, collect information about its college entrance regulations. Is it an efficient system for you? Why or why not?

Lesson Nine

I. Topic 4. Security 5. Liberty

(Week:  9  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to understand the different types of needs

Students should be able to understand the different types of harm

Students should be able to recognize different forms of needs and harms in education setting

 

III. Teaching Content

Comparison of the efficient systems from student assignment

Group 3 presentation: introducing security

Types of needs: Relative vs. absolute human needs; Direct vs. instrumental needs; Future vs. present needs; Physical survival vs. relational needs

Types of harm in relation to liberty: physical harm, material harm, emotional and moral harm; structural and accumulative harms to a community

Key points: different types of needs and harms

Difficulties: how to balance between needs and harms

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 4. Security in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 5. Liberty in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

Identify the security and liberty issues in relation to the policy issue you have chosen, do you see any trade-offs between different goals? How do you propose to keep balance between them?

 

Lesson Ten

I. Topic summary goals and trade-off between different goals

(Week:  10  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should have a comprehensive view of the variety of goals

Students should understand the trade-offs between different goals

Students should be able to use the concepts to identify and define policy goals in face of a specific policy

 

III. Teaching Content

Overview complications in defining policy goals

trade-off: Equity, efficiency, Liberty, security

Case analysis: policy paradoxes, lessons from Finish education

Round table discussion panel 1 of all groups on the initial planning of the group project on developing a framework and defining goals on a policy issue of their choice.

Key points: goals overview and the trade-offs

Difficulties: round table discussion

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation, debate

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading:

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

 

 

 

Lesson Eleven

I. Topic Part  Problems 6.Symbols

(Week: 11   ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should have a general understating of the various ways to represent a problem

Students should be able to explain the differences in different types of symbols

Students should be able to use one type of the symbols to describe a policy problem

 

III. Teaching Content

Introducing ways to define policy problems

Group 4 presentation: introducing symbols

Types of symbols: stories, synecdoche, metaphor

Key points: definition of policy problems and the types of symbols

Difficulties: how and when to use which type of symbols

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 6. Symbols in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

In consideration of the various ways to represent a policy problem, how were symbols used as a way to present the policy problem in relation to the policy issue you have chosen? Were they effective? Why or why not?

 

 

Lesson Twelve

I. Topic 7. Numbers 8.Causes

(Week:  12  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to explain why counting is political

Students should be able recognize the numerical strategies in defining specific educational problem

Students should be able use numerical strategies to define a problem

 

III. Teaching Content

Group 5 presentation: introducing numbers

Why counting is political

Numerical strategies in problem definition

Causal strategies and uses of causal argument in problem definition

Case study: PISA country ranking

Case study: journal rankings and citation counts

Key points: numerical strategies in problem definition

Difficulties: recognizing the numerical strategies in contexts

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation, debate

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 7. Numbers in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 8. Causes in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: (e-reader)

1. Policy-Effects-of-PISA-OUCEA

2. PISA-2015-results-in-focus

3. Rutkowski & Rutkowski.(2014).Leaning Tower of PISA

4. Gruber, T. (2014). Academic sell-out: how an obsession with metrics and rankings is damaging academia. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 24(2), 165-177.

5. Bornmann, L., & Marx, W. (2015). Methods for the generation of normalized citation impact scores in bibliometrics: Which method best reflects the judgements of experts?. Journal of Informetrics, 9(2), 408-418.

 

VI. Student Assignment

Task 1: find a university of your interest. Make a list of the reasons why you are interested in this university. Then find answers to the questions such as How was it ranked in different university ranking systems by different organizations? What is included excluded the rankings? If you would revisit your list of reasons, will it remain the same? And why or why not?

Task 2: how were numbers used to represent the policy problem of your choice?

 

 

Lesson Thirteen

I. Topic 9.Interests 10.Decisions

(Week: 13   ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be aware of the different layers of interests involved when defining a policy problem

Students should be able to recognize interests as represented in specific policy problems

Students should understand the differences between the rational analytic model and the polis model in decision analysis

 

III. Teaching Content

Group 6 presentation: introducing interests

Concepts of interests: subjective vs. objective

Representation of interests in defining policy problems

Decision analysis: rational analytic model vs. polis model

Key points: Representation of interests in defining policy problems

Difficulties: Representation of interests in defining policy problems

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 9. Interests in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 10. Decisions in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

How are interests represented in the policy problem you defined?

 

Lesson Fourteen

I. Topic Part  Solutions  11. Inducements

(Week: 14   ; Study hours: 3   )

 

II. Objectives

Students should have an overview of the different kind of policy instruments

Students should be able to describe the key elements in the inducement system

Students should be able to explain the conditions for using positive and negative inducements

 

III. Teaching Content

Overview types of policy instrument

Group 7 presentation: introducing inducements

Positive versus negative Inducements

The inducement system: giver, receiver, the inducement

Inducements in the market and polis model

Key points: positive and negative inducements

Difficulties: inducements in the market and polis model

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 11. Inducements in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

Were there any inducements involved in solving the policy problem you have chosen? Were they effective or not? Why?

Lesson Fifteen

I. Topic 12.Rules 13.Facts

(Week: 15   ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be aware of the tensions in making rules, and what are good rules

Students should be able to describe and explain the two faces of persuasion

Students should have a critical understanding of the rational ideal and the indoctrination in reality

 

III. Teaching Content

 Concepts of good rules, tension in making rules

Group 8 presentation: introducing facts

Two faces of persuasion

The rational ideal vs. indoctrination

Key points: two faces of persuasion and the rational ideal vs. indoctrination

Difficulties: The rational ideal vs. indoctrination

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 12. Rules in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 13. Facts in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

Can you identify any use of rules or facts in the current policy instrument used for solving the policy problem of your choice?

 

Lesson Sixteen

I. Topic 14.Rights 15.Powers 

(Week: 16   ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should be able to describe the types, functions of rights

Students should know to  how powers can be changed

Students should be able to explain the strengths and weaknesses of different instruments as covered in this course

 

III. Teaching Content

Positive rights vs. normative rights

Types of rights: procedural, substantive

Functions, sources, mechanisms of rights

Power: redefining membership, changing size, changing distribution of power

Summary of policy solutions/instruments

Key points: functions of rights and ways to change power

Difficulties: functions of rights and ways to change power

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, student presentation

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: Chapter 14. Rights in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 15. Powers in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

Task 1: Can you identify any use of rights or powers in the current policy instrument used for solving the policy problem of your choice?

Task 2: putting pieces together (week 11-16) and make a coherent short analytical essay about the problem definition and its solutions on the policy issue of your choice.

 

 

Lesson Seventeen

I. Topic Policy paradox in action

(Week: 17   ; Study hours: 3   )

 

II. Objectives

Students should develop a comprehensive view of the variety of ways to define problems and propose solutions

Students should be able to recognize the way a problem is defined in a specific policy and propose alternatives

Students should be able to evaluate the solutions and propose alternatives

 Students should be able to provide persuasive argument for the proposed alternatives

III. Teaching Content

Overview policy problems and solutions

All group round table discussion panel 2, identify problems and proposing solutions to a policy issue of their choice

Key points: overview problems and solutions

Difficulties: roundtable discussion or poster presentation

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group, roundtable or poster presentation

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading: The conclusion chapter in Deborah, S. (2002). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. W.W. Norton & Company.

 

Other readings: TBD

 

VI. Student Assignment

finalize the group research paper

 

 

Lesson Eighteen

I. Topic Conclusions

(Week:  18  ; Study hours:  3  )

 

II. Objectives

Students should have a comprehensive view of the policy development cycle, key concerns in educational policy analysis

Students should develop critical thinking skills through analyzing the interconnected relationship between policy goals, problems and solutions

III. Teaching Content

Review main points from policy development cycle, window of opportunity, framework for analysis

Review main points policy paradox about the goals, problems and solutions

Remaining questions

Key points: policy development cycle, window of opportunity, framework for analysis and policy paradox about the goals, problems and solutions

Difficulties: policy development cycle, window of opportunity, framework for analysis and policy paradox about the goals, problems and solutions

 

IV. Teaching Methods

Lecture-demonstration by teacher, discussion group

 

V. Reading Materials

Core reading:

Other readings:

 

VI. Student Assignment

 

finalize the individual research plan/policy analysis paper.